Ernest Miller Hemingway (born July 21, 1899 – died July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist. Considered one of the most important American writers of the twentieth century. A modernist writer, Hemingway spent much of his early writing life in Europe. He was awarded the 1954 Nobel Prize in Literature. He was married to Mary Hemingway from 1946 until his death in 1961.